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authorChristophe Grenier <grenier@cgsecurity.org>2012-11-06 09:39:43 +0100
committerChristophe Grenier <grenier@cgsecurity.org>2012-11-06 09:39:43 +0100
commit3e805fc0f75b780700a0f0282d2b98c5297f5ee5 (patch)
treeebf1856e9538babc21f0d32d39aa2d9582b5a6eb /INSTALL
parent272c9c9e2c0a5e898e74d1a5c30825e694dff3a0 (diff)
Update INSTALL file
Diffstat (limited to 'INSTALL')
-rw-r--r--INSTALL259
1 files changed, 199 insertions, 60 deletions
diff --git a/INSTALL b/INSTALL
index 095b1eb..a1e89e1 100644
--- a/INSTALL
+++ b/INSTALL
@@ -1,16 +1,25 @@
Installation Instructions
*************************
-Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 Free
-Software Foundation, Inc.
+Copyright (C) 1994-1996, 1999-2002, 2004-2011 Free Software Foundation,
+Inc.
-This file is free documentation; the Free Software Foundation gives
-unlimited permission to copy, distribute and modify it.
+ Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
+are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
+notice and this notice are preserved. This file is offered as-is,
+without warranty of any kind.
Basic Installation
==================
-These are generic installation instructions.
+ Briefly, the shell commands `./configure; make; make install' should
+configure, build, and install this package. The following
+more-detailed instructions are generic; see the `README' file for
+instructions specific to this package. Some packages provide this
+`INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
+below. The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
+necessarily a bug. More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
+in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
@@ -23,9 +32,9 @@ debugging `configure').
It can also use an optional file (typically called `config.cache'
and enabled with `--cache-file=config.cache' or simply `-C') that saves
-the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. (Caching is
+the results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring. Caching is
disabled by default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale
-cache files.)
+cache files.
If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
to figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
@@ -35,30 +44,37 @@ some point `config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
may remove or edit it.
The file `configure.ac' (or `configure.in') is used to create
-`configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You only need
-`configure.ac' if you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using
-a newer version of `autoconf'.
+`configure' by a program called `autoconf'. You need `configure.ac' if
+you want to change it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version
+of `autoconf'.
-The simplest way to compile this package is:
+ The simplest way to compile this package is:
1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
- `./configure' to configure the package for your system. If you're
- using `csh' on an old version of System V, you might need to type
- `sh ./configure' instead to prevent `csh' from trying to execute
- `configure' itself.
+ `./configure' to configure the package for your system.
- Running `configure' takes awhile. While running, it prints some
- messages telling which features it is checking for.
+ Running `configure' might take a while. While running, it prints
+ some messages telling which features it is checking for.
2. Type `make' to compile the package.
3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
- the package.
+ the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
- documentation.
-
- 5. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
+ documentation. When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
+ recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
+ user, and only the `make install' phase executed with root
+ privileges.
+
+ 5. Optionally, type `make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
+ this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
+ This target does not install anything. Running this target as a
+ regular user, particularly if the prior `make install' required
+ root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
+ correctly.
+
+ 6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
@@ -67,65 +83,120 @@ The simplest way to compile this package is:
all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
with the distribution.
+ 7. Often, you can also type `make uninstall' to remove the installed
+ files again. In practice, not all packages have tested that
+ uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
+ GNU Coding Standards.
+
+ 8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide `make
+ distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
+ targets like `make install' and `make uninstall' work correctly.
+ This target is generally not run by end users.
+
Compilers and Options
=====================
-Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that the
-`configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help' for
-details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
+ Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
+the `configure' script does not know about. Run `./configure --help'
+for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
You can give `configure' initial values for configuration parameters
by setting variables in the command line or in the environment. Here
is an example:
- ./configure CC=c89 CFLAGS=-O2 LIBS=-lposix
+ ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
*Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
Compiling For Multiple Architectures
====================================
-You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
+ You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
-own directory. To do this, you must use a version of `make' that
-supports the `VPATH' variable, such as GNU `make'. `cd' to the
+own directory. To do this, you can use GNU `make'. `cd' to the
directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
the `configure' script. `configure' automatically checks for the
-source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'.
+source code in the directory that `configure' is in and in `..'. This
+is known as a "VPATH" build.
+
+ With a non-GNU `make', it is safer to compile the package for one
+architecture at a time in the source code directory. After you have
+installed the package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before
+reconfiguring for another architecture.
- If you have to use a `make' that does not support the `VPATH'
-variable, you have to compile the package for one architecture at a
-time in the source code directory. After you have installed the
-package for one architecture, use `make distclean' before reconfiguring
-for another architecture.
+ On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
+executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
+"universal" binaries--by specifying multiple `-arch' options to the
+compiler but only a single `-arch' option to the preprocessor. Like
+this:
+
+ ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
+ CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
+ CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
+
+ This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
+may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
+using the `lipo' tool if you have problems.
Installation Names
==================
-By default, `make install' will install the package's files in
-`/usr/local/bin', `/usr/local/man', etc. You can specify an
-installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving `configure' the
-option `--prefix=PREFIX'.
+ By default, `make install' installs the package's commands under
+`/usr/local/bin', include files under `/usr/local/include', etc. You
+can specify an installation prefix other than `/usr/local' by giving
+`configure' the option `--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
+absolute file name.
You can specify separate installation prefixes for
architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If you
-give `configure' the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX', the package will
-use PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
-Documentation and other data files will still use the regular prefix.
+pass the option `--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to `configure', the package uses
+PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
+Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
options like `--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the directories
-you can set and what kinds of files go in them.
+you can set and what kinds of files go in them. In general, the
+default for these options is expressed in terms of `${prefix}', so that
+specifying just `--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
+specifications that were not explicitly provided.
+
+ The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
+correct locations to `configure'; however, many packages provide one or
+both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
+`make install' command line to change installation locations without
+having to reconfigure or recompile.
+
+ The first method involves providing an override variable for each
+affected directory. For example, `make install
+prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
+directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
+`${prefix}'. Any directories that were specified during `configure',
+but not in terms of `${prefix}', must each be overridden at install
+time for the entire installation to be relocated. The approach of
+makefile variable overrides for each directory variable is required by
+the GNU Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.
+However, some platforms have known limitations with the semantics of
+shared libraries that end up requiring recompilation when using this
+method, particularly noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
+
+ The second method involves providing the `DESTDIR' variable. For
+example, `make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
+`/alternate/directory' before all installation names. The approach of
+`DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
+does not work on platforms that have drive letters. On the other hand,
+it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
+when some directory options were not specified in terms of `${prefix}'
+at `configure' time.
+
+Optional Features
+=================
If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure' the
option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
-Optional Features
-=================
-
-Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
+ Some packages pay attention to `--enable-FEATURE' options to
`configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
They may also pay attention to `--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
is something like `gnu-as' or `x' (for the X Window System). The
@@ -137,14 +208,58 @@ find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
you can use the `configure' options `--x-includes=DIR' and
`--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
+ Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
+execution of `make' will be. For these packages, running `./configure
+--enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
+overridden with `make V=1'; while running `./configure
+--disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
+overridden with `make V=0'.
+
+Particular systems
+==================
+
+ On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible. If GNU
+CC is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
+order to use an ANSI C compiler:
+
+ ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
+
+and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
+
+ HP-UX `make' updates targets which have the same time stamps as
+their prerequisites, which makes it generally unusable when shipped
+generated files such as `configure' are involved. Use GNU `make'
+instead.
+
+ On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
+parse its `<wchar.h>' header file. The option `-nodtk' can be used as
+a workaround. If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended
+to try
+
+ ./configure CC="cc"
+
+and if that doesn't work, try
+
+ ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
+
+ On Solaris, don't put `/usr/ucb' early in your `PATH'. This
+directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
+these programs are available in `/usr/bin'. So, if you need `/usr/ucb'
+in your `PATH', put it _after_ `/usr/bin'.
+
+ On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in `/boot/common',
+not `/usr/local'. It is recommended to use the following options:
+
+ ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
+
Specifying the System Type
==========================
-There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out automatically,
-but needs to determine by the type of machine the package will run on.
-Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the _same_
-architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints a
-message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
+ There may be some features `configure' cannot figure out
+automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
+will run on. Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
+_same_ architectures, `configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
+a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
`--build=TYPE' option. TYPE can either be a short name for the system
type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
@@ -152,14 +267,15 @@ type, such as `sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
- OS KERNEL-OS
+ OS
+ KERNEL-OS
See the file `config.sub' for the possible values of each field. If
`config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
need to know the machine type.
If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
-use the `--target=TYPE' option to select the type of system they will
+use the option `--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
produce code for.
If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
@@ -170,9 +286,9 @@ eventually be run) with `--host=TYPE'.
Sharing Defaults
================
-If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share, you
-can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives default
-values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
+ If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
+you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
+default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
`configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
`PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists. Or, you can set the
`CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
@@ -181,7 +297,7 @@ A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
Defining Variables
==================
-Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
+ Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
environment passed to `configure'. However, some packages may run
configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
variables may be lost. In order to avoid this problem, you should set
@@ -189,17 +305,30 @@ them in the `configure' command line, using `VAR=value'. For example:
./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
-will cause the specified gcc to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
+causes the specified `gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
overridden in the site shell script).
+Unfortunately, this technique does not work for `CONFIG_SHELL' due to
+an Autoconf bug. Until the bug is fixed you can use this workaround:
+
+ CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash /bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
+
`configure' Invocation
======================
-`configure' recognizes the following options to control how it operates.
+ `configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
+operates.
`--help'
`-h'
- Print a summary of the options to `configure', and exit.
+ Print a summary of all of the options to `configure', and exit.
+
+`--help=short'
+`--help=recursive'
+ Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
+ `configure', and exit. The `short' variant lists options used
+ only in the top level, while the `recursive' variant lists options
+ also present in any nested packages.
`--version'
`-V'
@@ -226,6 +355,16 @@ overridden in the site shell script).
Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
`configure' can determine that directory automatically.
+`--prefix=DIR'
+ Use DIR as the installation prefix. *note Installation Names::
+ for more details, including other options available for fine-tuning
+ the installation locations.
+
+`--no-create'
+`-n'
+ Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
+ files.
+
`configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options. Run
`configure --help' for more details.