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- <h1 class="firstHeading">Advanced FAT Repair</h1>
- <div id="bodyContent">
- <h3 id="siteSub">From CGSecurity</h3>
- <div id="contentSub"></div>
- <div id="jump-to-nav">Jump to: <a href="#column-one">navigation</a>, <a href="#searchInput">search</a></div> <!-- start content -->
- <p>If the FAT boot sector is damaged, data can not be accessed.
-Windows will prompt <code>The drive is not formatted, do you want to format it now?</code>
-Linux mount will display <code>wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock</code>
-</p><p>TestDisk let you manipulate the boot sector of FAT partitions.
-In the Advanced menu, select the partition you want to modify and choose <b>Boot</b>.
-</p>
-<pre>
-TestDisk 6.2-WIP, Data Recovery Utility, November 2005
-Christophe GRENIER &lt;grenier@cgsecurity.org&gt;
-http://www.cgsecurity.org
-
-Disk /dev/sda - 120 GB / 111 GiB - CHS 14593 255 63
-
- Partition Start End Size in sectors
- 1 * FAT32 0 1 1 1010 254 63 16241652 [NO NAME]
- 2 P Linux 1011 0 1 1023 254 63 208845 [/boot]
- 3 E extended LBA 1024 0 1 14592 254 63 217985985
- 5 L Linux RAID 1024 1 1 3573 254 63 40965687 [md0]
- X extended 3574 0 1 4210 254 63 10233405
- 6 L Linux RAID 3574 1 1 4210 254 63 10233342 [md1]
- X extended 4211 0 1 14592 254 63 166786830
- 7 L Linux 4211 1 1 14592 254 63 166786767
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-
-
-
-
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-[ Type ] [ Boot ] [ Quit ]
- Boot sector recovery
-</pre>
-<table id="toc" class="toc" summary="Contents"><tr><td><div id="toctitle"><h2>Contents</h2></div>
-<ul>
-<li class="toclevel-1"><a href="#Repair_FAT_boot_sector"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Repair FAT boot sector</span></a>
-<ul>
-<li class="toclevel-2"><a href="#Recover_the_FAT32_boot_sector"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Recover the FAT32 boot sector</span></a></li>
-<li class="toclevel-2"><a href="#Rebuild_a_valid_FAT_boot_sector"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Rebuild a valid FAT boot sector</span></a></li>
-<li class="toclevel-2"><a href="#Technical_information_about_FAT_boot_sector_rebuild"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Technical information about FAT boot sector rebuild</span></a></li>
-</ul>
-</li>
-<li class="toclevel-1"><a href="#Repair_FAT_tables"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Repair FAT tables</span></a></li>
-</ul>
-</td></tr></table><script type="text/javascript"> if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } </script>
-<a name="Repair_FAT_boot_sector"></a><h2> Repair FAT boot sector </h2>
-<a name="Recover_the_FAT32_boot_sector"></a><h3> Recover the FAT32 boot sector </h3>
-<p>TestDisk can use backup boot sector to fix corrupted FAT32 boot sector.
-The primary boot sector is sector zero of the filesystem, the backup FAT32 boot sector is located at sector 6.
-TestDisk checks the boot sector and the backup boot sector.
-If the boot sector and backup boot sector mismatches,
-you can overwrite the boot sector with the backup boot sector (<b>Backup BS</b>) or vice versa (<b>Org. BS</b>). <b>Dump</b> can used to display the sector content in both hexadecimal and ascii.
-</p>
-<a name="Rebuild_a_valid_FAT_boot_sector"></a><h3> Rebuild a valid FAT boot sector </h3>
-<p>If there is no backup boot sector (FAT12, FAT16) or if the FAT32 boot sector is also corrupted,
-TestDisk can rebuild FAT boot sector, choose <b>RebuildBS</b> in the menu.
-</p>
-<pre>
-TestDisk 6.2-WIP, Data Recovery Utility, November 2005
-Christophe GRENIER &lt;grenier@cgsecurity.org&gt;
-http://www.cgsecurity.org
-
-Disk /dev/sda - 120 GB / 111 GiB - CHS 14593 255 63
- Partition Start End Size in sectors
- 1 * FAT32 0 1 1 1010 254 63 16241652 [NO NAME]
-Boot sector
-OK
-Backup boot sector
-OK
-Sectors are identical.
-
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-[ Quit ] [Rebuild BS][ Dump ] [Repair FAT]
-
- Return to Advanced menu
-</pre>
-<a name="Technical_information_about_FAT_boot_sector_rebuild"></a><h3> Technical information about FAT boot sector rebuild </h3>
-<p>To rebuild a FAT boot sector, TestDisk assumes that
-</p>
-<ul><li>filesystem size is equal to partition size
-</li><li>fragmentation is low
-</li></ul>
-<p>The steps are
-</p>
-<ul><li>select which FAT type are compatible with the filesystem size
-</li><li>identify the sectors where begin the two FAT (number of reserved sector, fat length) and the FAT type (FAT12/16/32)
-</li><li>If only one FAT is found:
-</li></ul>
-<p>If FAT12 or FAT16 is found, assumes there is only one reserved sector. If it's the
-second FAT, deduce the the fat length.
-If beginning of FAT32 first fat is found at sector 32 or 33,
-deduce the number of reserved sectors.
-</p>
-<ul><li>If two or more FAT sector beginning has been found:
-</li></ul>
-<p>assumes the first two are the two
-copies of the FAT. Deduce the number of reserved sectors and fat length.
-</p>
-<ul><li>If number of reserved sector or fat length hasn't been found,
-</li></ul>
-<p>use inode of <code>.</code> directory entries to get the cluster size and deduce where the first cluster begin.
-From the number of cluster, deduce if it's a FAT12, FAT16 or FAT32.
-If FAT12 or FAT16, assume there is only one reserved sector.
-Try to find the number of directories entree (512 by default).
-Deduce the FAT length.
-</p>
-<ul><li>If FAT12 or FAT16, find the root directory size
-</li><li>Find the cluster size
-</li><li>If FAT32, find the root cluster
-</li><li>Create a boot sector with this information
-</li><li>ask the user if he want to write this new boot sector or not,
-</li></ul>
-<p>the user can also list the files of the FAT partition
-</p>
-<a name="Repair_FAT_tables"></a><h2> Repair FAT tables </h2>
-<p>File Allocation Tables are maps of the data region, indicating which clusters are used by files and directories.
-To repair FAT, menu <b>Repair FAT</b>, TestDisk compares the two FAT copies.
-If FAT mismatches (sector by sector check) or contains errors, TestDisk uses the FAT copy with less errors and remove the obvious errors.
-This function must only be used on FAT filesystem with correct values in the boot sector.
-It has been used with success when scandisk, chkdsk or fsck.vfat refused to repair the filesystem or crashes.
-</p><p>Back to <a href="running_testdisk.html" title="Running TestDisk">Running the TestDisk Program </a>
-</p>
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